Clinical Questions in Cardiology: Using Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists

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The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) class of medications has become an important option for treating patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Cardiovascular outcome trials also show that selected GLP-1RAs exert beneficial cardiovascular benefits in patients with and without T2D. In this activity, case studies commonly encountered in cardiology practice are utilized to prompt reflection on opportunities for reducing cardiovascular risk. Drawing on seminal research and their own experience, cardiologist Jorge Plutzy, MD, and endocrinologist Helena Rodbard, MD, navigate through a series of ‘clinical questions’ to inform regarding the clinical pharmacology of the GLP-1RAs and their evidence-based role in cardiovascular risk reduction, particularly in patients with secondary atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The faculty also provide recommendations to optimize the use of GLP-1RAs as a class, as well as individually, including strategies to mitigate gastrointestinal adverse events and address patient concerns. In closing, Dr. Plutzky underscores the essential role of cardiologists in diabetes care, advocating for a collaborative, interprofessional team approach to optimize the health of patients with chronic coronary disease.

Course Credit:

1.25 AAPA Category I Hours
1.25 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditsTM
1.25 ANCC Contact Hours
1.25 CA-BRN Contact Hours
1 Pharmacology Hour


Opens: 2024-01-31
Closes: 2025-02-28

Target Audience:

The target audience includes cardiologists and cardiology advanced practice providers who treat patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), and other clinicians with an interest in T2D.

This activity is supported by an independent educational grant from Novo Nordisk.


In support of improving patient care, Annenberg Center for Health Sciences at Eisenhower (Annenberg Center) is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.

The Annenberg Center for Health Sciences at Eisenhower designates this enduring activity for a maximum of 1.25 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

The Annenberg Center has been authorized by the American Academy of PAs (AAPA) to award AAPA Category 1 CME credit for activities planned in accordance with AAPA CME Criteria. This activity is designated for 1.25 hours AAPA Category 1 CME credits. Approval is valid until February 28, 2025. PAs should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation.

Annenberg Center for Health Sciences at Eisenhower designates this enduring activity for a maximum of 1.25 ANCC contact hours, including 1 pharmacology hour.

Provider is approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider #13664, for 1.25 contact hours.
To receive credit for education contact hours outside of the state of California, please check with your state board of registered nursing for reciprocity.

Additional Content Planners

Eugene Cullen, MD (Peer Reviewer)
No significant relationships to disclose.

Heather Jimenez, MSN, FNP-C (Nurse Planner)
No significant relationships to disclose.

Chandler Schexnayder, PharmD, BCPS, CDCES, BCACP (Medical Writer)
No significant relationships to disclose.

Annenberg Center for Health Sciences

Staff at the Annenberg Center for Health Sciences at Eisenhower have no relevant financial relationships to disclose.

All of the financial relationships listed for these individuals have been mitigated.

    Presenting Faculty

  • Jorge Plutzky, MD

    Director, Preventive Cardiology
    Cardiovascular Medicine
    Brigham and Women's Hospital
    Boston, Massachusetts

  • Helena W. Rodbard, MD

    Past President, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE)
    Past President, American College of Endocrinology (ACE)
    Founder and Medical Director, Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants
    Rockville, Maryland

Learning Objectives

  • Explain how the mechanisms of action of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) address key pathophysiologic mechanisms of type 2 diabetes
  • Compare and contrast the agents within the GLP-1RA class
  • Formulate strategies to ease patient safety concerns and improve tolerability to GLP-1 RAs
  • Justify the use of GLP-1 RAs for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes
  • Apply current evidence-based recommendations from the ACC, ADA, and ADA/EASD to individualize GLP-1RA therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes

Faculty Disclosures

Jorge Plutzky, MD

No relationships to disclose.

Helena W. Rodbard, MD

Consultant: Pacira
Research Support:  Eli Lilly, Inversago, Medtronic, Novo Nordisk, Sanofi
Speaker Bureau: Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Merck